"MPCD" Dispersant - MPCD - BIOSINFO

We propose to clean the areas, the sand and the vegetation "In Site" with Biodegradable Chemicals MPCD and Biological Acceptable Products BIOSINFO that are Environmentally Friendly to accelerate the process of Biodegradation. To do that we need heavy machinery to mix the products with the soil and sand and a lot of hand labor "In Site".

DISPERSANT

When used appropriately, dispersants can be an effective method of response to an oil spill. They are capable of rapidly removing large amounts of certain oil types from the sea surface by transferring it into the water column. Following dispersant application, wave energy will cause the oil slick to break up into small oil droplets that are rapidly diluted and subsequently biodegraded by micro-organisms occurring naturally in the marine environment. They can also delay the formation of persistent water-in-oil emulsions. In common with other response techniques, the decision to use dispersants must be given careful consideration and take into account oil characteristics, sea and weather conditions, as well as surrounding environmental sensitivities.

Dispersants are a group of chemicals designed to be sprayed onto oil slicks to accelerate the process of natural dispersion. Significant environmental and economic benefits can be achieved, particularly when other at-sea response techniques are limited by weather conditions or the availability of resources. In certain situations, dispersants may provide the only means of removing significant quantities of surface oil quickly, thereby minimizing or preventing damage to important sensitive resources. Their use is intended to minimize the damage caused by floating oil, for example to birds or before the oil may hit a sensitive shorelines. However, in common with all spill response options, the use of dispersants has limitations and its use should be carefully planned and controlled. Dispersant use will also depend upon national regulations governing the use of these products.

Methods of application at sea:

Dispersants can be applied to open water by a variety of methods. In general workboats are more suitable for treating minor spills in harbors or confined waters. Large multi-engine planes are best equipped for handling large off-shore spills. Small, single-engine aircrafts and helicopters are suitable for treating smaller spills and near shore areas. Regardless of the method used, the droplet size of the dispersant is important as it needs to be sufficiently large to overcome the effects of wind and evaporative loss but not so large that it will result in the droplets being able to pierce through the oil slick. A uniform spray pattern of larger droplets, "rain drops", is required rather than a fog or a mist. Ultimately, whichever method of application is used, the key to a successful response using chemical dispersants is the ability to target the thickest part of the oil slick within a short time and before weathering or sea state render the oil indispensable.

Vessel spraying:

Dispersants are usually applied from boats equipped with spray arms. In a typical spray arm system, pumps are used to pump dispersants from a storage tank through a set of nozzles calibrated to produce a uniform spray pattern of droplets.

Spray units can be portable or permanently installed on a vessel and systems are available which deliver the dispersant either undiluted or diluted with sea water. Spray arms are usually mounted as far forward on the vessel as possible to avoid the effect of the bow wave which can push the oil beyond the spray swath. Mounting the spray arms on the bow allows the vessel to travel faster and, because freeboard area is often greater at the bow also allows for longer spray arms. This combination allows optimization of the amount of oil which can be treated (increasing the encounter rate) with a limited dispersant payload. If spray arms are not available, fire hoses or monitors are sometimes used to apply diluted concentrate dispersants. However, optimum dilution of the dispersant is difficult to achieve because of the very high flow rates and wastage of dispersant is a common problem. The high-powered jet of water also makes it difficult to apply the dispersant as a uniform spray of droplets and it frequently pierces through the oil making it ineffective. Thus fire monitors are unlikely to be an effective application tool unless specially modified for the purpose.

Vessels offer certain advantages for dispersant spraying because they are usually readily available, easy to load and deploy, have cost advantages over aircraft and can apply dispersant fairly accurately to specific areas of a slick. Nevertheless, they also have serious limitations, particularly for larger spills, because of the low treatment rate which they offer and the added difficulty of locating the heaviest concentrations of oil from the bridge of a vessel. Furthermore, when slicks become fragmented or form narrow windrows, it is inevitable that some dispersant will be sprayed onto clear sea. These problems can be partially overcome by controlling the operation from spotter aircraft.

Aerial spraying:

The spraying of dispersant from an aircraft has the significant advantages of rapid response, good visibility, high treatment rates and optimum dispersant use. In addition, aircraft allow treatment of spills at greater distances from the shore than with vessels.

Two categories of aircraft are used: those designed for agricultural or pest control operations which require minor modification for dispersant application, and those which have been specifically adapted for the application of dispersant. Several types of helicopter have also been adapted to spray dispersants although most are able to carry an under slung bucket spray systems without the need for modifications. The ideal aircraft will be determined primarily by the size and location of the spill, although in reality local availability will be the crucial factor. The endurance, fuel consumption, turnaround time, payload and the ability to operate from short or improvised landing strips are all important. In addition, the aircraft should be capable of operating at low altitude and relatively low speeds (50-150 knots) and be highly maneuverable.

Shoreline application:

Dispersants are sometimes used to remove oil from hard surfaces such as rocks, sea walls and other manmade structures, particularly during the final stages of clean-up. However, it is important to remove the bulk of the stranded oil by other means first. Shores subjected to strong wave action are often cleaned naturally and they should not be sprayed unless the oil has to be removed immediately.

Dispersants may be applied to the surface and scrubbed into the oil before flushing with sea water. The dispersed oil cannot be collected and for this reason dispersant use on the shoreline is restricted to areas of low environmental concern. Shoreline cleaners may also be used but it is important to note that their mechanism of action is different from that of dispersants.

MPCD - BIOSINFO - THERMAL DESORPTION PROCESS

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